One of the most significant advantages of 3D printing architecture is its high efficiency. It takes about 24 hours of printing time to build a 500 square foot (46.45 square meters) single-storey house. But this is not only to save time: 3D printing buildings can also reduce construction waste and reduce carbon emissions. Generally, a typical residential construction will cause about 4 tons of garbage. Because the concrete used in the traditional floor construction is evenly coated, about half of the concrete will be consumed regardless of whether the structural support is required in a specific area. This is particularly harmful to the environment, because cement, as the main component of concrete, accounts for about 7% of our carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast, 3D printers can change the thickness of the structure very accurately, and only use concrete where it is really needed. This process is called topology optimization. Compared with ordinary 3D printing technology, the printing technology of 3D printing architecture is more difficult.
First of all, ensure that the concrete can flow smoothly during the printing process, so that it can enter and exit the printer smoothly without blocking.
Secondly, the concrete extruded from the printer must be able to harden quickly and become strong enough to bear the subsequent layer.
In addition, 3D concrete printing also needs to overcome a series of challenges in the outdoor environment (work), because environmental dust, humidity, moisture, temperature, etc. are variables that interfere with concrete performance, so these factors must be controlled.
At present, 3D printing technology mainly uses the following three ways to build buildings:
1. Full size printing. The advantage of this method is that it is more convenient and does not require much post-processing, but its limitations are also obvious. The larger the building, the larger the 3D printer required. More importantly, the larger the 3D printer, the worse the printing accuracy and printing speed. So the single printing at this stage is mainly to solve some basic problems of 3D printing houses, such as materials, control, accuracy, etc.
2. Segmental assembly printing. That is, the modularization of buildings. Each piece is printed in the factory and finally assembled on site. The advantage of this method is that it solves the limitation of building size, and the disadvantage is that the on-site assembly work involves a lot of labor, which increases the cost.
3. Group robot collective printing assembly. It is a group of 3D printers that perform tasks together like bees (such as printing the whole house). In this way, the size of the printer has nothing to do with the size of the building. At the same time, the intelligent requirements of the printer can also be greatly reduced. However, at present, few companies have mastered this technology, which is not mature enough, and the cost is also high. However, this kind of self-organized and self-coordinated group intelligence is also the research direction of AI. The truss-type printing equipment independently developed by Nanjing Jiayi uses computers to design the drawings of three-dimensional buildings, and sends them to the site or the digitally controlled large building 3D printer of the site factory through the BIM management system. It uses special cheap concrete to print and assemble the reinforcement on the site, and constructs the building components and buildings that meet the current specifications.
This 3D printing technology is fully applied, which can effectively reduce carbon dioxide emissions
The truss printing equipment of Nanjing Jiayi can undertake the printing business of various personalized, small batch, multiple varieties, low density and unique building groups or individual buildings. For example, the construction of urban landscape, street view and public facilities, such as urban large-scale characteristic landscape, bus stops, toilets, open-air kiosks, art fences, tourist attractions facilities, road and bridge railings.
This 3D printing technology is fully applied, which can effectively reduce carbon dioxide emissions
Nanjing Jiayi has been engaged in building 3D printing since 2015. Since the first prefabricated house based on concrete 3D printing components, it has completed nearly 8000 square meters of 3D buildings and structures in six years. With the development of design technology and new environment-friendly printing materials, as well as the great progress made in construction automation, Jiayi has integrated into the mainstream construction trend with new design thinking and digital construction methods through cooperation with the Green Additive Intelligent Manufacturing Research Institute. Jiayi has perfectly combined individuality and industrial standardization. Instead of focusing on independent landscapes, municipal components, structures, and building components, we will look at them as an organic whole to seek solutions. On the one hand, we will display creative designs and ingenious construction methods, on the other hand, we will create a harmonious sense of environmental integration, and create a cultural tourism, enterprise, and residential space with harmonious coexistence of natural environment.